This document will describe the setup of jail(8) and how-to configure all applications to work properly within a jail(8). It has the following design criteria/assumptions:

  • /usr/ports is shared throughout all installations (so are all the configuration for the ports then) and every system build all ports himself.
  • The sample jail is called pzwet and is located in /usr/jail/pzwet and has IP assigned to it.
  • All services dependencies are within their own jail, so I can start and stop jails without affecting the others.
  • My sendmail setup has spam filtering --powered by mail/spamass-milter-- support for incoming email only.
  • I do not list all the dependencies to be installed, but only the 'meta' port services I like to have running on the system.
  • Keep the list of installed packages as small as possible. As least X11 as possible.

Important: Your jail server should not run any public facing services which does 'wildcard' binding to IP addresses, else it will 'claim' the service before your jail can take it, causing weird behaviour. To check for potential errors: sockstat -46l | grep '*:[0-9]'

Install Jail

First make sure to install the jail using the method in the handbook:
master# mkdir -p /usr/jail/pzwet
master# cd /usr/src
master# make buildworld
master# make installworld DESTDIR=/usr/jail/pzwet
master# make distribution DESTDIR=/usr/jail/pzwet

Ensure your jail if configured (use your own IP of course):

master# cat <<EOF >> /etc/rc.conf

Mirror the /usr/ports within the jail using nullfs(5):
master# mkdir /usr/jail/pzwet/usr/ports

master# cat <<EOF > /etc/fstab.pzwet
/usr/ports      /usr/jail/pzwet/usr/ports               nullfs  rw              0       0

Make it do DNS resolving:
master# cp /etc/resolv.conf //usr/jail/pzwet/etc/resolv.conf

Start the jail and login to it:
master# /etc/rc.d/jail start pzwet

Tip: The JID is different every time the jail restarts (increment) and starts over when the machine is rebooted. There are tools around in ports which provides wrappers around them, like ez-jails. But I prefer to stick to base setup only.
master# jls

   JID  IP Address      Hostname                      Path
    27          /usr/jail/pzwet

master# jexec 27 csh

Configure Jail

Tip: Jails does NOT have a local loopback device, so you will need to use UNIX sockets on places you would normally use the loopback address.

pzwet# cat <<EOF >> /etc/rc.conf
# Base Services


# saving entropy bits is not useful within jails, as your host will do handle this.
# Get some jitter in your cron runs to make sure the does not all run at time same time. 
# Do NOT use if you rely on having your process to start at 'exact' that time.

# Port Services
spamass_milter_localflags="-i, -r -1 -- -U /var/run/spamd.sock"

spamd_flags="--socketpath=/var/run/spamd.sock --nouser-config --username=nobody"



Bit more user friendly default csh shell. Include the hostname:
pzwet# echo 'set prompt="`hostname -s`% "' >> /etc/csh.cshrc

Tip: Make sure your port directory is clean before start. Run find /usr/ports/ -mindepth 3 -maxdepth 3 -type d -name work | rev | cut -c 5- | rev | xargs -n 1 -I % make -C % clean if you are not sure.
Install the ports:
pzwet# make -C /usr/ports/security/sudo WITH_INSULTS=yes BATCH=yes install clean
pzwet# make -C /usr/ports/devel/subversion WITH_MOD_DAV_SVN=yes APACHE_VERSION=22 BATCH=yes install clean
pzwet# make -C /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/portaudit BATCH=yes install clean; /usr/local/sbin/portaudit -Fda
pzwet# make -C /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/portupgrade BATCH=yes install clean
pzwet# make -C /usr/ports/editors/vim-lite BATCH=yes install clean
pzwet# make -C /usr/ports/mail/spamass-milter BATCH=yes install clean
pzwet# make -C /usr/ports/sysutils/screen BATCH=yes install clean
pzwet# make -C /usr/ports/databases/mysql51-server BATCH=yes install clean
pzwet# make -C /usr/ports/databases/php52-mysql BATCH=yes install clean
pzwet# make -C /usr/ports/textproc/php52-ctype BATCH=yes install clean
pzwet# make -C /usr/ports/www/drupal6 WITHOUT_X11=yes APACHE_VERSION=22 WITH_APACHE=yes BATCH=yes install clean
pzwet# make -C /usr/ports/mail/mailman WITH_SENDMAIL=yes BATCH=yes install clean
pzwet# make -C /usr/ports/www/trac BATCH=yes install clean
pzwet# make -C /usr/ports/www/mod_wsgi3 BATCH=yes install clean
Create a User Accounts and set Passwords, please replace with your own detail of course:
pzwet# passwd root
pzwet# pw user add -m -w random -G wheel -s /bin/csh -c 'Rick van der Zwet' -n rvdzwet

All all members of group will to do sudo powers:
pzwet# sed -i '' 's+# %wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL+%wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL+' /usr/local/etc/sudoers; visudo -c

Update port INDEX tree and report on pending upgrades every Saturday:
pzwet# echo '0 3 * * sat root /usr/sbin/portsnap -I cron update && /usr/sbin/pkg_version -vIL=' >> /etc/crontab

Highly experimental HACK to automatically execute all commands in this page

 ( awk '/<<EOF/,/^EOF/ {print NR " " $0}' foo.txt; awk '/^pzwet#/ {print NR " " $0}' foo.txt ) |\
   sort -nu | cut -d " " -f 2- | sed 's/^[a-zA-Z0-9]*# //g'
Last modified 6 years ago Last modified on Dec 19, 2010, 3:10:55 PM